Research the article 3 about New Zealand listed below. As the leader of the emer

Research the article 3 about New Zealand listed below.
As the leader of the emergency planning
team—prior to the disaster—for New Zealand Address the prompts listed:
In the introduction,
identify a risk, and choose a vulnerable population that is susceptible to
the risk or disaster that had taken place.
Determine the priorities
for situational awareness and communication strategies.
Examine how the Incident
Command System (ICS) will be influential in the overall operations prior
to a disaster taking place.
Provide a description of
how the emergency operations center (EOC) would provide support should a
disaster occur.
Analyze and develop a
mitigation or preparedness strategy to protect or reduce the vulnerability
and increase the communications and interoperability within social groups.
This is in CH. 4 Listed below: Regarding assistance using the Five Cs.
One Resource: Emergency incident management systems:
Fundamentals and applications (2nd ed.)
CH. 3 Opening
Incident Management in Other Countries
The world as we have created it is a process of our thinking. It cannot be
changed without changing our thinking. Albert Einstein
All too often, we take for granted the incident management
system (IMS) methods that began in the United States. Many believe that these
methods that were developed in the United States are used around the world, or
they would believe that they are not used anywhere except a few select
countries. Either train of thought would be a major misconception. As we will
see in this chapter, most countries have adapted an IMS method to manage
As a disclaimer, the information in this chapter was taken
from various research rather than first‐hand knowledge. Because the majority of
the information came from the Internet, it is possible that some information in
this chapter may be incomplete or incorrect. We apologize in advance for any
While the current IMS system in the United States is the
National Incident Management System (NIMS), most countries utilize a totally
different IMS method. Some countries utilize the Incident Command System (ICS)
component of NIMS, while others use similar bits and pieces of ICS, NIMS, or
some other IMS method. Some countries have no standard IMS method across their
nation, but rather leave it up to the provinces or the states what, if
anything, should be used. In some instances, these foreign countries do not use
an IMS method, or they only recently started using an IMS method. A basic
review of these countries and the methods they use can help us understand the
importance of the basic principles and concepts as they relate to managing an
CH. 3 New Zealand
The IMS system used by New Zealand is the Coordinated
Incident Management System (CIMS) method. The CIMS method is very similar to
the NIMS method used in the United States. This method was first introduced in
1998, and it is based on the same four basic tenets as the NIMS method, but
they use different words. In New Zealand, those base tenets are identified as
“Four‐Rs.” Those “Four Rs” are the following:
Risk reduction
If we compare this to the NIMS method used in the United States, risk reduction
is equivalent to mitigation, readiness is the equivalent of planning, and
response and recovery are the same. Much like NIMS method, the Coordinated
Incident Management System (CIMS, 2014) is flexible, uses common structures,
roles, and responsibilities, it requires common terminology, and it is modular
and scalable. This system is responsive to each community’s needs, it fosters a
coordination of response (among differing agencies), a coordination of
resources, and integrates information management and communications. It also
dictates a manageable span of control (number of people supervised), and it
provides for the facilities needed for the response. It also is constantly
evaluating the system to ensure that the Coordinated Incident Management System
(CIMS) meets the ever‐changing needs of first responders. One minor difference
that was found from the NIMS method is that the Coordinated Incident Management
System (CIMS) appears to put more of an emphasis on international compatibility
with other IMS methods (CIMS, 2014).
While the Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS,
2014) method is similar to the NIMS method in many ways, there are also some
subtle differences. One definition in the Coordinated Incident Management
System (CIMS) method defines coordination as being assisted by a defined
command and control. According to this definition, command is vertical to a
single agency, while control is horizontal to outside agencies. Another
difference is in the general staff positions. Instead of four (or five if Intelligence
and Investigation is enacted) general staff functions, the New Zealand IMS
method has six general staff functions, and they identify the Incident
Commander (IC) as Control instead of command. These six functions are the
Public Information Management
The Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS, 2014) is also different in
providing an Incident Management Team (IMT) who assists the Controller. While
an Incident Management Team (IMT) is often used in the United States, they are
typically used to fill key position in ICS. New Zealand Incident Management
Teams (IMT) are typically technical experts who provide advice based on special
knowledge and handling of comprehensive work. The Incident Management Team
(IMT), when activated, could contain a Response Manager, a Technical Expert, or
other individuals who have specific information for that specific type of
incident. The Incident Management Team (IMT) can also include risk advisors.
All of the Incident Management Team (IMT) in the Coordinated Incident
Management System (CIMS) report directly to control (CIMS, 2014).
Another interesting concept in the Coordinated Incident
Management System (CIMS, 2014) method is the integration of the community into
any response. While most IMS methods suggest connecting with the community,
Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS) method goes one step further. In
the Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS) manual, it states
Communities, organisations and businesses self‐respond to
emergencies, either as part of official pre‐existing arrangements or on their
own in a spontaneous or emergent manner. Response agencies need to accommodate,
link with, support and coordinate community participation in response.
Wherever possible, communities and the business sector
should be appropriately incorporated in response coordination planning before
incidents occur. Although CIMS is designed to apply to official response
agencies, its principles can be applied at the community level where they form
part of such pre‐planned structures.
The Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS, 2014)
method also provides a color scheme for each general staff function being
performed. This method has assigned pink for planning, dark blue for
investigations, and purple for public information. This color coding would seem
to be more helpful when trying to identify the functional‐based individual you
may need to interact with, or ask a question of, in an incident. The
Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS) method also provides a structure
to identify the lines of authority between varying governmental agencies (CIMS,
2014), and while slightly different, it uses a planning process more like the German
version of DV 100.
In looking at Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS)
using a holistic review, it more resembles the NIMS method of IMS, but it
appears to be less complicated. While it may resemble NIMS, several stark
differences have been revealed. Even with those differences, integration from
Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS) method to the NIMS method, or
vice versa, would not be hard when an international incident occurs.
Ch. 4
If you were to conduct a literature review written on the control and
management of emergency incidents, you would find common variables. While the
military utilized C4 and C4‐I as a way to manage troops, in a post‐9/11 world,
we now look at five reoccurring themes in order for the incident management
system (IMS) method to be effective. These five reoccurring themes (or
concepts) are critical to managing an incident. Those concepts are the
Not only are these Five Cs a reoccurring theme, but they also have a high level
of importance in incident management. This holds true in all phases of incident
management, including the preparedness mode, the response mode, the recovery
mode, and the planning and mitigation mode of an incident. They are the basic
concepts of managing any crisis, disaster, or emergency incident. These factors
have a significant relevance and are underlying pieces that make incident
management effective. The utility of each will be discussed in great detail.

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