1. Several biology students have just returned from a field trip in which they w

1. Several biology students have just returned from a field trip in which they were asked to collect prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The eukaryotic organisms were to be divided into plant cells, animal cells, or “other.” The students have access to a light and electron microscope. Can you suggest how they could determine whether these cells are prokaryotic or eukaryotic? How could they distinguish plant from animal cells? 2. Discuss how ER stress responses contribute to the pathology of chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. 3. Discuss the evidence supporting an evolutionary connection between the neuroendocrine system and the UPR to modulate behavioral adaptive responses. 4. Discuss the link between type I IFNs and ER stress in the various pathological contexts. 5. Discuss the mitochondria-ER signaling and activity in neurodegenerative diseases. 6. Discuss the relationship between SR/ER dysfunction and diseases. 7. Discuss the major functions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). 8. Overall, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy play critical roles in various CNS cells in both health and various neurodegenerative diseases. In view of this, the development of brain penetrating small molecules that can function as ROS scavengers, ER stress inhibitors, autophagy modulators, and anti-inflammatory molecules, and that can impact the ER stress and/or autophagy signaling pathways could thus be considered as potential therapeutic strategies for restoring cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative disorders. interview a person who is your relative, colleague, friend or family member to obtain comments on the possible pharmacological interventions for restoring cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Please feel free to make a background introduction to the interviewee if necessary

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